Urban Design Course， Part One
The Spatial Strategy and Design for an Urban
Course Principal：Prof. WANG Lin
For the Urban Design course of the first International Master Program in Architecture at Shanghai Jiao Tong School of Design, we have set up a teaching team that consists of the heads of leading domestic and international design firms and teachers with rich experience in urban design practice, while establishing the teaching objectives and key content of the urban design course. The first objective is understanding the essential nature of urban design, focusing on the design of public relationships and the improvement of public space through value-added design. The second is formulating a methodology for urban design, guiding students to master the design thinking process of urban design, by logically identifying problems, defining goals and working out solution through a holistic and methodological process. The third is developing a teaching methodology through the interaction between the teaching fellows and students during practical exercises. Through multi-perspectival and speculative design discussions, we want to urge the students to think and design using their logic, deduction, goals, missions, independent thinking, and creativity.
"Design converts shelters into homes, housing into communities, and towns and cities into magnets of opportunities.”
This is the first part of the urban design core studio in architecture. The faculty team hopes to help students develop their understanding of city and urban design, explore the relationships between various complex elements that compose cities, and learn to construct the ideal relationships through design practices and carefully devised design task requirements. We believe that urban public space is the most important vehicle in conveying such critical relationships development, on which the focus of this design exercise will be based.
With infrastructure and public services making up the core of cities, any space that supports the operation of infrastructure to provide public services should be considered as part of the urban public space system. Thus, the definition of urban public space should not be limited to the physical properties of places. Instead, our interpretation and design actions towards public space quality should expand from physical space to social space, and even digital space, and create meaningful connections. As cities enter the developmental stage of densification and digitalization, the paradigm shift on urban operation and the expanded dimensions of public space have created both new challenges and new opportunities for urban design today.
本次城市设计教学内容，就是聚焦公共空间品质，探讨城市设计如何成为一种助力城市创新发展的策略性工具 – 即城市设计的关键内容应该是为不同城市要素之间建立理想关系的介面设计，而不是个别独立的主体设计；城市设计的技术内涵应该是建立一种面向最大化公共利益的空间论证过程，而不是最终设计成果。换言之，我们的教学目标是希望培养学生主动思考及掌握关键课题，提出具体的设计目标，和支持这个课题与目标的功能规划及设计策略，最后以设计方案来表述以上设计过程的能力，藉此来理解城市设计如何引导空间决策，挖掘公共空间的最大价值。
The curriculum of this urban design studio emphasizes the quality of public space and how urban design can be a strategic instrument in enabling and innovating the urban development process. The essential core of urban design in fact should be about the design of interface through which an ideal relationship between different urban elements can be established, rather than the design of individual subjects. The technical content of urban design should reveal the design process that seeks maximum common interest, rather than aiming for a final design proposal as the result. In other words, our goal is to develop students' ability to proactively think and identify key urban issues, to clearly propose design goals supported by correspondent programming and design strategies, and finally to transform and express these processes through demonstrated design solutions, thereby allowing them to understand how urban design can guide critical decisions and maximize the value of public space.
我们以上海卢湾体育中心为基地，以城市公园综合体的空间策略与设计为题目来进行设计课程，引导建筑学科学生去探讨“公园”作为一种典型城市公共空间，如何融入建筑设计思维来拓展或放大其公共服务功能成为一种创新的城市公园综合体，藉此拓展建筑与城市之间长期以来在尺度、形态、功能等面向所形成的空间解读，提高学生对公共空间的思考深度与维度，探讨公共空间成为一种新建筑形式（Public Space As Architecture）的可能性。
We take Shanghai Luwan Sports Center as the site for the design exercise with the topic of spatial strategy and design of urban park complexes, guiding architecture students to explore how "park", as a typical urban public space, can become an innovative urban park complex elevated by integrated architectural design components, through which functions can be reinvented and the impact of an urban park can be amplified. The process is particularly designed to stimulate students’ critical thinking on the inter-relationships between architecture and the city in terms of form, scale, and function. Through exploring both the physical and social dimensions, students can develop their fundamental urban design capabilities in enhancing the quality of public spaces, and explore the possibility of how “Public Space As Architecture” can be realized.
Study Boundary_ Satellite Map
Design Boundary_ Satellite Map
作业展示 Studio Work Display
Sports + Non-static Complex
-小组成员 Team member:
Through discovering, studying, and solving problems, we use a grid as the base framework and subdivide the grid to propose a non-static design concept in terms of urban space combination, function iteration, usage mode, and development and operation mode.
From the perspective of the space, function and users, we find that the space and function of the site need to be summarized and re-organized, and its resilience needs to be improved in order to satisfy the complexity and diversity of the site.
The design proposal focuses on the stadium facilities and conducts site analysis on urban texture, street network, public space structure, function distribution, target population, traffic organization, plots and their combinations, building types, etc. Under limited resources and complex conditions, the design proposal improves the quality of public space and community vitality, and satisfy the various demand of all people throughout the 24 hours cycle.
-小组成员 Team member:
Shanghai Luwan Sports Center is located in the Huangpu District of Shanghai. Huangpu District is a typical high-density central urban area. People here are exposed to oppressive, sparse ground greenery, and little existence of nature. People here also encounter a lack of urban public spaces for communicating with family members and walking during after-school and off-work hours. The fruits and vegetables in the central city are all delivered through long-distance transportation, which aggravates some urban diseases such as air pollution. A range of urban issues makes the area far from being the livable, healthy, eco-city vision that people seek.
There are a wide range of residential areas around the Luwan Sports Center, and the key words for the characteristics of residents are "family", "school" and "children". The site has problems such as closed boundaries, weak accessibility, singular sports facilities, and intermingling of people and vehicles. The composition of the population and the current conditions of the site increase the discrepancy between supply and demand.
In response to the above problems, this design proposal builds a "sports + farm" ecological circle at an urban scale, focusing on the improvement of urban quality and the creation of urban public space, hoping to integrate "nature" and "ecology" into the city to stimulate the vitality of the city and community. The design of the building volume considers the original texture of the city, and establishes a dynamic urban "interface" that can interact with the surrounding plots.
The “Sports + Farm” is divided into three layers: the ground layer is mainly for picking vegetables, other experiential activities, and outdoor sports fields; the 12-meter layer is dominated by fresh markets, circular runway and promenade; and the roof layer is dominated by the fruit and vegetable planting farm for people to wander around. The three layers are not only connected by promenades, but are also connected through vertical elevators. The sports and farm activities on the three layers have their own emphasis and characteristics, creating a rich and attractive environment with mixed-use public space. Taking into account the urban microclimate, the design proposes to plant different types of plants, vegetables and fruits on each of the three levels, and introduces different activities according to the seasons to improve the natural stability of the site and the entertainment for visiting. The three systems with seasonal scenes are jointly constructed to form an ecological, green, livable system eco-city circle.
一层平面图/Ground Floor Plan
设计细节和设计评估/Specific Design and
-小组成员 Team member：
Pik Kuan CHIN
The urban design proposal focuses on Shanghai Luwan Sports Center and daily life in in cities through exploring possibilities of future urban development. In the context of Shanghai's high-density living environment, the diverse scenes of daily life make urban life more colorful, but also drive up the land value of many urban spaces.
This urban design process starts with research on the local traffic conditions, functional distribution and on-site usage of the Luwan Sports Center. After careful analysis, we find that there is a scarcity of high-quality urban public space, lack of space for daily interactions for nearby residents, and crowded parking space. Near the site are historical buildings and neighborhoods such as Shaoxing Road and Tianzifang, in addition to some of the strong public functions distributed in buildings that have fallen into disrepair. Therefore, our vision is to replace some of the existing building functions and plot functions and put these functions into the scope of our site, so that the city has more public space to provide for daily leisure activities and residential interactions. This can also increase the aggregation of functions within the site and provide more urban derivative services.
功能置换概念图/Function Transferring Concept
Finally, in the design process, in order to meet the diversification of sports functions, better serve the needs of professional sports, and at the same time, balance the daily exercise needs of urban residents, we increase the number of sports facilities and venues as much as possible in the design, as well as the derivative functions of increasing the replacement function, such as the cultural publishing house after the replacement, and adding cultural and creative art centers and art exhibition halls to undertake the cultural functions that can overflow from Tianzifang and Shaoxing Road.
功能置换示意图/Function Transferring Diagram
Based on the principles of urban design, the Luwan Rebalance project proposes detailed requirements in terms of urban relationship, road network, traffic level, functional layout, plot ratio, building height and building facade, etc.
Xanadu Bazaar, Exploration on the integrated sports and business and shared community in the context of urban regeneration
-小组成员 Team member：
Bianca SALONE （意大利 Italian）
基地位于上海市黄浦区老城区中，在城市更新背景下，随着中国人口结构变化、老年人成为社区配套设施主要使用者，“15min社区生活圈”也应从 “避难式”养老社区设计向 “聚居式”养老社区转变，进而走向老龄友好型社区。
The site is located in the old neighborhood of the Huangpu District, Shanghai. Under the background of urban regeneration, with the change of China's population structure and the aging people becoming the main users of community supporting facilities, the "15min community life circle" should be transformed from a "refugee-style" retirement community to a "congregation-style" retirement community or even an aging-friendly community.
15min生活圈概念图/15 City Diagram
The design added the “bazaar” as a mixed-use commercial area to the existing sports programming. The main function of the bazaar is to sell, but it also includes social, cultural, casual dining and even sports functions. Actually, the market is a kind of micro city, the epitome of people’s daily life. The main goals of the design are to stimulate commercial vitality, realize the sharing of surrounding communities and allow usage by all ages, creating a Chinese “Xanadu Bazaar”. This bazaar serves people of all ages, but will pay more attention to the aging-friendly.
Based on these characteristics, the bazaar is integrated with the urban public space. Using the space under the eaves to bring in natural landscape, various programs overlap, so that the market sales area, the children's activity area, the community chess and card room, the tea room, and the green space can integrate with each other. To create a more complex space, various social groups can freely play together, avoiding the "isolation" of the elderly group.
At the same time, we also raised the runway to realize the upper and lower double runway space, so that the space above the eaves and under the eaves can both be used for the field track. The upper unshielded standard runway serves the youth of the sports school; the lower runway "under the eaves" serves the elderly who are afraid of strong sunlight.
架空跑道示意图/Diagram of Overhead Runway
-小组成员 Team member：
After on-site research and interviews, this design proposal retains the functions of the Luwan Sports Center, while using the theme of Sports Garden of Eden to create themost popular sports park in Shanghai. We have set up different sports areas, including flow experience area, competition area, sports leisure area and rehabilitation area, as well as different types of outdoor activity venues. The ratio of sports and service functions is 2:1, and thoughtful management services is one of the main characteristics of the park. The ground floor of the park is dedicated entirely to the pedestrian, and there is a branch road running through the north and south underground to alleviate the traffic problem on Zhaojiabang Road. There is a complete vertical traffic system from the underground to ground level. At the same time, a new skybridge is designed to connect the site with the office area on the other side of Zhaojiabang Road. People can go under the green belt in the middle of Zhaojiabang Road, making full use of the large public area. The green space can also increase the flow of people in the park. We hope that all people that come to exercise here can find their own world, be healthy and happy.
节点分布/Key Space Layout
Luwan Health Complex,
Urban regeneration of Luwan Sports Center based on the Concept of Integrated Health and Digital Cloud
-小组成员 Team member
Bing Wei CHEN
In the post-epidemic era, health has become the most important concern for residents as they have been facing various life pressures and sub-health problems for a long time. However, there are very few places that focus on sub-health issues. By linking urban public space to sub-health issues, our team want to create a new type of place that could promote health.
The site is a sports center with a unique location and an adequate sports function base, so there is potential for the site to be used as a place to combine health and professional functions. Therefore, according to the analysis of the current situation of the site, we need to release more public space in the high-density urban environment, create a distinct field from the outside world through the form of enclosure. At the same time, we let the public space penetrate into the building, mix various functions and provide multiple healthy living services. In order to facilitate the infiltration and integration between different groups, a system of sky bridges is set up and connected to the external urban traffic infrastructure. We hope to use natural elements as the base and the public space for pressure release and the link to organically integrate the three major physical functions of health, nutrition and sports in this site. The application of digital tools provides data support for health management on the cloud, echoing the concept theme and creating a future health park complex.
In the first eight weeks of Core Studio 2, the teaching group of " The Spatial Strategy and Design for an Urban Park Complex " cooperated tacitly. Through the three kinds of training, including studio design, weekly exercises and lectures, the course has helped us understand the value of urban design and the relationships between architecture and urban design.
As architecture students with little knowledge about urban design, we encountered many difficulties at the very beginning such as how to establish the relationship between the site and the city, how to create valuable open space, how to solve the needs, how to using architecture to respond to public spaces, etc. During the entire eight weeks, these problems have perplexed us and also pushed us. Through the patient guidance of the teachers during and after class, we finally presented our ideas about the city, the community, the public space, and the daily life.
I would call it a reconfiguration Studio. Because of the epidemic, the classes have been reconfigured. In the design studio, we reconsidered and reconfigured the location of the site, the urban interface of the site, as well as the relationship between people and the city.
This core studio hosted by Prof. Liu Hongzhi has given us a deeper understanding of the design of the city as a research object.
I am so excited to have such a good opportunity in this studio, to communicate with many experienced and excellent teachers, and to participate in many impressive lectures and seminars given by the teachers.
Prof. Liu Hongzhi has led us to conduct in-depth field research, guided us to distinguish our thinking about the urban design from urban planning and architectural design, and helped us to control the urban form. Under his guidance, we have created various design results that could be applied to the site. Every group and every student has learned a lot. Also, the whole process of this core studio has benefited everyone a lot.
The experience of the first 8 weeks of the studio design was great. Mr. Liu is a very nice and patient professional. In the second class, he directly demonstrated with tracing paper during the group discussion. This was very straightforward as a teaching method and greatly improved the efficiency of the knowledge transfer. During the epidemic period, online classes have not slacked at all. Professor Huang, Professor Sun and Professor Fang were also very serious and responsible, and the entire teaching team was very competent. We’d like to thank each professor for leading such a pleasant design studio.
This studio selected a high-density built environment of the Luwan Sports Center district in Shanghai for the urban design studio with the theme of urban regeneration. With the both efforts of the professors and students, especially under challenges and difficulties of the epidemic, six group students have completed a series of rich and wonderful design proposals within 8 weeks, perfectly reaching the expected teaching objectives of the urban design course. Special thanks to Prof. LIU Hung-chih, and the teaching team of HUANG Yinwu, SUN Shining and FANG Anyu for their meticulous teaching and dedication, as well as BAO Bojiang for his assistance in teaching. At the same time, I would like to warmly congratulate the 31 students in 6 groups for their excellent work, wonderful report and design results! It's great!
——王林 Prof. WANG Lin
After eight weeks of working in groups, the students went from having a lack of understanding of urban design topics to processing a confident and accurate language system in their final review. They have also progressed from making a rusty representation of urban space at the beginning to the accomplishing six design proposals of distinct ideas and clear rationale. Therefore, we believe that the gains and growth harvested by the faculty and student teams from this cooperative design process are far greater than the sum of these six design results.
We sincerely thank the Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Design for their trust and support, as we have already witnessed a group of rising design talents who will soon participate in building the wonderful cities that we are looking forward to building together!
——刘泓志 LIU Hung-Chih
Whether it is architectural design or urban design, it is all about people and their lives. Compared with architectural design, urban design gives us another perspective to observe society and experience life. The whole teaching structure is full of vitality and is well-organized, allowing the rich creativity and unlimited potential of the students to be fully unleashed. Design requires not only space, but also temperature. I hope that through this study, students can understand the common logic in design and explore a flexible and open design concept.
——黄印武 HUANG Yinwu
Today, new technologies and the digital has fundamentally altered our knowledge framework, mode of collaboration, social intervention, and reception of intangible forces. Design is perhaps only one of many agents through which the urban is produced. Therefore, I hope that even if the students decide to take on a different path in the future, the interdisciplinary research approach that they have taken in this course will still be informative to whatever endeavor they take.
——孙诗宁 SUN Shining
Urban design is relational design and an important tool for integrating multiple disciplines. During the studio, students with architectural backgrounds have demonstrated meticulousness in thinking, integrity in strategies, and prudence in designs skills. The diversification, the delicacy and creativity of the results all make me feel quite impressed. I hope this "large" scale design can plant a seed for young designers, with a human-oriented design concept, to move towards a new hopeful future.
——方安遇 FANG Yuan
First of all, I would like to express my gratitude to the teaching fellows and the guest jury members. I’m very grateful for students who have endured. This was not an ideal situation, and sorry for international students, especially the great difficulties it has brought to you. But I'm sure one day we will return to the city campus.
There is one more point to make, which is why we all have to speak English. We want you to benefit the most from all the resources from all over the world, and that’s the only reason, the universality of this program, which is also the quintessential character of Shanghai, the city you are in. So we use Shanghai as a laboratory and this program is precisely that. And how wonderful is that we heard from Director Yang that your ideas, your dreams and your work may have an impact on what’s happening in the real world.
And the last point I think it may appear as a contradiction: on the one hand, I want to pay attention to the market, as Albert said, after you leave the school, you will have to deal with someone like him who tells you what to do, as well as politics and culture and other things. We want you to understand the reality. We want you to be prepared to have the ability and knowledge tools to confront with; On the other hand, imagination is more important than knowledge. We all know that the originality of your work is of more importance. And these two things seem to be contradictory. But I think because we have to deal with the two ends of the spectrum that makes the work of architecture students so fascinating. I hope you have enjoyed the studio.
Dean and Guangqi Chair Professor at School of Design, Shanghai Jiao Tong University
Firstly, I would like to congratulate 6 group for their wonderful work. All our students are early 20s’. I think it is very important that idea of carbon reduction of sustainability will be integral part of any design. This is a very challenging goal. Our students are determining whether we will succeed or not.
Students have discussed the urban design in their own way and made different interpretation, which is very nice. Maybe one thing we can talk about more is urban character. What I want to emphasize is this specific area of the study, which have lot of history and ideas of the urban character. All design could benefit if there are more discussion and analysis around the urban character of the context. Beyond context, I would say why not save any building? New buildings are most carbon intensive, because concrete and steel are main carbon emitters. In addition, I think you are offered luxury for being in a research lab in school. After graduation, students will face the influence of the market and are subjected to many constraints, making it difficult for them to achieve an ideal design. But they still should not give up the opportunities and possibilities for exploring sustainable development. I don’t think we are looking for a perfect design, but rather opportunities to explore.
——阮昕 RUAN Xing
——陈建邦 Mr. Albert K. B. CHAN
Director of Development Planning and Design at Shui On Land (SOL) and Chief Sustainability Officer of the Group
The most challenging part of this course design comes from the scale. Multiple-disciplines design thinking in urban design is very much different from the undergraduate which focuses on a single discipline. Urban design is involved in grouping or overlapping multiple disciplines together that allows for a broad range of thinking that can be applied to a very broad scale. This allows us to look at things through different perspectives and identify opportunities that are potential in changing cities. In the years ahead with the next generation of maturing development that is more sophisticated and more articulated to urban design thinking and the quality of space and the quality of the environment as compared to the quantity that maybe we’ve had in the past. I think the ability to bring all the disciplines together through these projects is really a great opportunity to develop skills.
Guest Professor of Shanghai Jiao Tong School of Design, SOM China Practice Leader, MLA External Examiner, HKU
I was so impressed about the work. The topic of rethinking the publicness of architecture through urban design is such a great topic for the architecture students, to rethink of the strategy, and also to adapt to a new mindset from designing individual buildings to form different relationships with the buildings in the surrounding communities. The public space helps to improve the daily life of the city and provide social activities such as culture, entertainment, sports and recreation in various forms. Charming, vibrant and attractive cities can always provide residents with high-quality public spaces. The students’ wonderful presentations, great ideas, and impressive graphics, especially in the special period of lock down, it is very difficult to achieve such results.
美国建筑师协会上海 | 北京分会第7任主席
President of AIA Shanghai
First of all, I would like to thank the Shanghai Jiao Tong School of Design for choosing the Huangpu site as a design topic for graduate students, which provides a useful reference for the future development of the site. The designs of the six groups reflect the active thinking of the students and are very inspiring. Due to the openness of the design assignment book, the analysis of the six groups of students was in-depth, comprehensive and focused, and the presentation of the design was also very exciting. Several judges also gave good comments, which are also important hints for students’ future design, especially the difference between design topics and actual projects. As a planning manager, I hope that students will pay more attention to market feedback and social needs, land value growth, ability to develop enterprises, and requirements of management departments in the future to achieve a comprehensive balance.
——杨连娣 YANG Liandi
Deputy Director of Planning Bureau of Shanghai
Huang Pu District